Figure 3. Cooler exergy balance . 4. COOLER MODELING . The clinker cooling in steady-state conditions is modelled by a series of contactors (Fig. 4) with a perfect cross-flow heat exchange [6]. The heat transfer and the pressure drop are defined by correlations referring to macroscopic hydrodynamic criteria. The number of stages in the warm

Exhaust air heat (grate cooler) 116 14.7 116 15.1 Radiation heat loss (preheater, kiln, cooler) 76 9.6 71 9.2 Heat in discharged clinker 21 2.6 21 2.7 TOTAL 786 100 766 100 Heat input from fuel fired, viz coal 734 - 714 - Table - 1 : Heat Balance for a Typical Cement Plant

1. CLINKER COOLER 2 CLINKER COOLER Reduce clinker temperature from approx. 1400 o C to approx 100 ~ 200 o C The heat of the incoming clinker is recuperated in the secondary air of Kiln An efficiency of incoming clinker heat usually lies within 65 ~ 75% 3 Clinker Cooler Type 1. Grate Cooler Cross flow heat exchange through clinker bed with cold air Grate movement : reciprocating; …

2.1 Subdivision of the cooler into balance segments Using finite volume method the length and the height of the clinker bed in the grate cooler are subdivided into individual balance segments for calculation of heat transfer. The results presented here were calculated for a cooler …

The hot farine exiting from the abgas which is a rotten gas that appeared in clinker production in the rotary kiln system. Ventilation at point 5 passes through the cooling tower to transfer excess heat into the cooling flow, as illustrated in Fig. 1.Under the steady-state and steady-flow conditions, the mass, energy, entropy, and exergy balance equations can be defined as for the cooling tower:

Apr 26, 2013· Clinker theoretical heat of formation• The heat required to form clinker from dry raw mix• ZKG formula (German formula):Qt = 4.11 Al2O3 + 6.47 MgO + 7.64 CaO - 5.11 SiO2 - 0.60 Fe2O3• If no clinker analysis: assume Qt = 420 kcal/kg ck• Must be added to the clinker heat content as latent heat or as a separateoutput heat stream.CaF2 ...

4.1 Energy Analysis of the Base Case Clinker Cooler . The energy analysis for the base case grate clinker cooler is performed by using the formulas in Table 3.1The mass balance of the system first needs to be . analyzed to show that the clinker cooling process is …

fuels for generating process heat in the industry. Coal 41% Electricity 11% Waste Fuels 2% Heavy Fuel Oil 4% Natural Gas 27% Coke 3% Petro Coke 12% Figure 1. Clinker Production Fuel Use 1990–1992 Average Figure 2. Clinker Production Fuel Use 1996–1998 Average Coal 41% Electricity 11% Waste Fuels 7% HFO 4% Natural Gas 22% Coke 1% Petro Coke 13%

Effect of cooler residence time on (a) secondary temperature and (b) cooler heat recovery. Download : Download high-res image (195KB) Download : Download full-size image; Fig. 17. Effect of cooler residence time on (a) calcination and (b) outlet material temperature.

(Tool : Heat Balance Method) Principle of prediction: Production capacity is approximately proportional to exhaust gas rate which flows through kiln. 1 - SP kiln with Grate cooler : 1.4 m3N/kg-cl - SP kiln with Satellite cooler : 2.0 m3N/kg-cl - Dry kiln : 2.6 m3N/kg-cl - Wet kiln : 2.4 m3N/kg-cl

The hot farine exiting from the abgas which is a rotten gas that appeared in clinker production in the rotary kiln system. Ventilation at point 5 passes through the cooling tower to transfer excess heat into the cooling flow, as illustrated in Fig. 1.Under the steady-state and steady-flow conditions, the mass, energy, entropy, and exergy balance equations can be defined as for the cooling tower:

Improving Thermal and Electric Energy Efficiency at Cement Plants: International Best Practice iii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Cement Production Process Flow Schematic and Typical Energy Efficiency Measures ..... 2 Figure 2: Rotary Cement Kiln (Dry Process with Cyclonic Preheaters) ..... 4 Figure 3: Schematic Depiction of Control Points and Parameters in a Kiln System Control and Management ...

The total solids balance equation is : m1x1+ m2x2= m3x3 The total water balance equation is : m1(1-x1) + m2(1-x2) = m3(1-x3) The total water balance equation is however NOT a totally new equation. It can be obtained by subtracting the total solids balance equation from the overall mass balance equation.

Heat balance Excess oxygen level Clinker chemistry Volatiles concentration Emission limits (SO 2, NO x, etc.) Maximum, minimum and speed of change constraints on actuators Operative constraints on fuel con-sumption Separate consideration of combusti-on process in precalciner and kiln Contracts (with customers or sup-pliers) to be satisfied at ...

2.1 Subdivision of the cooler into balance segments Using finite volume method the length and the height of the clinker bed in the grate cooler are subdivided into individual balance segments for calculation of heat transfer. The results presented here were calculated for a cooler …

ROTARY KILN PRODUCT COOLERS Slide 12 shows a schematic of satellite product coolers. All modern kilns are being offered with product coolers. Satellite coolers are tubes attached to the kiln shell and rotating with the kiln. The hot reburned lime product drops through holes in the shell just uphill from the lip of the kiln into the tube coolers.

Clinker cooler: detailed control of each cooler stage and balance of the rotary kiln combustion air in combination with TAD and exhaust measurement. TA: measurement and control of tertiary to the separate line calciner: - stabilize rotary kiln operation - reduce calciner downtime - increase the usage of alternative fuels**

Figure 3-Mass balance in grate cooler The mass flow rate of clinker input and output is same because mass flow rate in grate cooler remain constant. mckin + main – maout – mckout = 0 C. Energy Balance in the Grate Cooler The main function of cooler is to cool the clinker and transfer the energy to air. The clinkers are losing heat by ...

ROTARY KILN PRODUCT COOLERS Slide 12 shows a schematic of satellite product coolers. All modern kilns are being offered with product coolers. Satellite coolers are tubes attached to the kiln shell and rotating with the kiln. The hot reburned lime product drops through holes in the shell just uphill from the lip of the kiln into the tube coolers.

Apr 12, 2016· Join the OPS webinar team for an in-depth conversation about Kiln Mass and Balance. ... Dryer Design Heat and Mass Energy Balance - Duration: 7:27. R. ... Clinker Cooler Operation ...

4.1 Energy Analysis of the Base Case Clinker Cooler . The energy analysis for the base case grate clinker cooler is performed by using the formulas in Table 3.1The mass balance of the system first needs to be . analyzed to show that the clinker cooling process is …

cooler operation parameters such as clinker temperature, cooler efficiency and heat losses. These parameters have to be monitored continuously to ensure the cooler is operated efficiently. Therefore, the mass and heat balance calculation are very vital calculation in a cement process plant.

The milling process generates heat and excessive mill temperatures are undesirable. It is clearly helpful, therefore, if the clinker is cool as it enters the mill. From an environmental and a cost viewpoint, the cooler reduces energy consumption by extracting heat from the clinker, enabling it to be used to heat the raw materials.

Taking the clinker in grate cooler as a continuum, Touil [1] divided ﬁnite element of grate cooler and calculated clinker cooling process numerically. Mujumdar [2] applied the heat conduction theory on heat transfer analysis of the grate cooler, he took the grate cooler as a whole and carried on overall heat balance calculation of double ...

Clinker coolers are fitted at the discharge end of the kiln to perform following functions: - To cool the hot clinker discharged from the kiln. ... As ISIG does the major heat recovery task, for balance Clinker cooling it is equipped with conventional Reciprocating Grate Cooler.

8 Slide 15 Lime Kiln Heat Rate • Heat rate is a measure of energy efficiency – Units are MM Btu/ton CaO or GJ/tonne CaO – Often stated as MM Btu/ton "product" • Typical range – 5 to 9 MM Btu/ton CaO – 5.8 to 10.5 GJ/tonne CaO – Lower is better Slide 16 Lime Kiln Energy Balance Components • Drying • Calcining : CaCO3 + heat ÄCaO + CO2 • Losses – Heat loss through shell

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